Category Archives: Uncategorized

The CDC Issues 2016-2017 Vaccine Schedule; Dr. Mark Geier Urges Caution

Influenza Vaccine

 

Dr. Mark Geier has worked for the past three decades educating the public about the efficacy of vaccines and why some vaccines may actually cause neurological diseases like autism. It’s important to know that Dr. Mark Geier is not anti-vaccine, and he has helped to improve vaccines in this country. He has been a critic of influenza vaccines for some time for a number of reasons.

 

He argues that testing cannot be done correctly because the strain is not actually known at the time. With less than ten percent efficacy, the flu vaccine does not save many lives, and Dr. Mark Geier argues that the side effects of the disease make it not worth it. The flu vaccine has been linked with Guillain-Barre Syndrome – a neurological disease where the body’s immune system attacks the Peripheral Nervous System.

 

Therefore, it might not be in your best interest to get a flu vaccine even if the CDC recommends that everyone over the age of 6 months do. There are just too many potential side effects, and the vaccine will probably not work in the first place. Dr. Mark Geier has also done extensive work on autism and how vaccines may have contributed to its prevalence over the past twenty years.

The Connection: Neuroinflammation & Autism

shutterstock_315669032

To date, there is no cure for autism spectrum disorder and the cause of onset is unknown, which makes scientific research extremely important. The prevalence of the disability was recorded at 1 in 68 children according to the CDC’s surveillance data from 2010, however, recent data from the National Health Statistics Report pegs the prevalence rate at 1 in 45 children aged 3 to 17. This significant increase in prevalence is a great cause of concern and requires researchers to work that much harder. With that in mind, there isn’t an effective one-size-fits-all treatment because individuals with ASD can have a wide variety of symptoms. But, one thing that has been overlooked in individuals with autism is the treatment of neuroinflammation.

Mark Geier and his fellow co-authors published a literature review titled “Relevance of Neuroinflammation and Encephalitis in Autism” where they point out a trend among those diagnosed with autism. The researchers approximate that 69% of those with autism have encephalitis or microglial activation, which is a brain pathology that suggests continuous neuroinflammation (encephalitis) in different regions of the brain. Why is this important to know? Well, autism is often categorized as a psychiatric disorder and the diagnosis does not include evaluating or treating the physical symptoms of the disorder like neuroinflammation.

For many years, the psychiatric categorization has slowed the progress of treatment and despite decades of proven research that autism is much more than just a psychiatric disorder, the categorization has hindered research into the physical side of things. It is conceivable that treating the neuroinflammation could possibly help alleviate some symptoms of ASD. This substantial finding indicates that the encephalitis includes microglial & astrocytic activation, a unique & elevated proinflammatory profile of cytokines, and abnormal expression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells. Researching the treatment of the encephalitis could open the doors to more effective treatment.

This means that the sole psychiatric categorization of autism needs to be re-worked to include the physical symptoms of the disorder.

When Does Correlation Become Causation?

What’s the difference between correlation and causation? The answer to this question is of the utmost importance to scientific researchers, who must use their understanding of this distinction to make conclusions about experimental data. The dictionary definitions of correlation and causation are fairly straight-forward. Correlation is when two or more things occur at the same time, but there’s no proof that a change in one variable would cause a change in the other variable. Causation is when two things occur at the same time, yet there is proof that a change in one would cause a change in the other. Most scientists testing a hypothesis about the relationship between two variables therefore seek to prove causation.

The distinction between causation and correlation has been particularly relevant to discussions about toxic elements like mercury. Mercury has long been associated with adverse conditions like neurodevelopmental disorders. As our exposure to mercury has increased over the course of the last century, so too have cases of autism, autoimmune disorders, and anxiety and depression. Despite this correlation, additional scientific research was needed to prove that the relationship between mercury exposure and adverse health events was not coincidental.

Recent scientific research demonstrates that causation is in fact at play. Scientists Mark Geier and David Geier have long studied the relationship between mercury and adverse health outcomes. While the mercury-containing compound Thimerosal, a preservative used in vaccines, was the primary focus of their earlier research, their recent publication on mercury dental amalgams also clearly demonstrates a causal relationship between mercury and adverse outcomes. According to the study, mercury exposure via dental amalgams increases an individual’s risk for illness, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and most alarmingly, suicide. Adverse effects also include muscle discomfort, frequent infections, GI disturbances, impaired memory, and sore throats. Through their own research and extensive reviews of other scientific findings, the Geiers find that the toxicity resulting from mercury amalgam exposure is broad and varied, and can be delayed in certain individuals.

While mercury exposure affects different individuals in different ways, there remains proof of a strong correlation because findings from these studies consistently meet the Bradford Hill criteria for epidemiology, which includes strength, specificity, consistency, temporality, biological gradient, plausibility, coherence, experiment, and analogy. In other words, while a mercury dental amalgam won’t cause every individual aching lymph glands, the relationship between mercury and adverse health events meets enough Bradford-Hill criteria to reflect a causal dynamic.

Unfortunately, others seem to insist that the connection between mercury and the increase in adverse health events is simply corollary, rather than causal. Dental amalgams containing mercury continue to be offered as a treatment option to dental patients in the United States, and given that over 180 million Americans possess these amalgams, this hesitation to recognize a causal relationship ultimately comes at the expense of human health.

 

 

 

Comparing American and French Biomarkers of Toxicity

While we’ve known mercury to be a dangerous substance for years now, the nature of this element’s toxicity—at what levels it burdens the body, and in what ways—has been less well-known and acknowledged. Previous studies into mercury’s toxicity have uncovered some startling risks for adverse effects, but these findings have been met with relatively little concern given their association with autism and vaccines. That’s why researchers Janet Kern, David Geier, Francoise Ayzac, James Adams, Jyutika Mehta, and Mark Geier were interested in conducting additional research on mercury toxicity by comparing mercury body-burdens between neurotypical populations in Texas and France with urinary porphyrins, biomarkers that reveal the presence of mercury toxicity through specific patterns.

The Experiment

Unlike Kern et al.’s many previous studies on mercury toxicity, this study did not examine children with neurodevelopmental disorders; rather, the group’s sample population was comprised exclusively of neurotypical children. This was done to ensure that accurate results of toxic metal burden were obtained, given that there is some evidence to suggest that ASD children are less likely to excrete heavy metals and therefore maintain higher levels of toxicity in the body for inherent reasons.

To conduct the study, each day a subject’s first urine sample was collected and sent to a laboratory for a profile assessment of their urinary porphyrins. For practicality, these samples were collected by subjects’ parents via a collection kit with detailed instructions. Subject populations from both Texas and France included children that were between 2 and 13 years of age, had received routine childhood vaccinations, and did not qualify as maintaining any neurodevelopmental disorder as identified by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale.

After profiling the urinary porphyrins from both American and French sample subjects, Kern et al. employed statistical analysis, specifically the Wilcoxon matched-pairs sign-ranked test statistics, to produce an accurate comparison between corresponding ages and genders. The statistical analysis also accounted for differences in fish consumption, another way in which children are exposed to mercury.

The Findings

Given Kern and the Geiers’ previous research on vaccines and mercury, their results were not surprising. Statistical analysis of the two test subject groups revealed that children in the United States maintain much higher levels of urinary porphyrins associated with mercury body-burden than children in France. For example, increases were shown for the levels of urinary precoproporphyrins and total coproporphryins.

Significance

The disparity found between mercury body-burden in American and French test subject groups underscores the reality that increased environmental exposure to mercury does lead to increased body-burden of the toxic element. For example, the United States is the world’s leading producer of Hg emissions, as a result of its heavy dependence on coal-fired power plants, while France maintains a limited amount of coal reserves and emits far less mercury into the air. Additionally, the mercury-containing preservative Thimerosal was present in more than 30 routinely-administered childhood vaccines in the United States in 1999; in France, children were administered just 3 Thimerosal-containing vaccines. The United States also continued to advocate for the administration of Thimerosal-containing influenza vaccines to women, infants, and young children, even after Thimerosal was removed from other childhood vaccines. France, meanwhile, did not advocate vaccine administration to these groups.

Exposure to mercury also affects neurodevelopment and performance in more ways than many may realize; mercury doesn’t just target one specific cognitive function or area of the brain. Rather, exposure to mercury can disrupt at least a dozen of areas and functions of the brain, and these can trigger additional abnormalities and dysfunctions throughout the rest of the body. Such is why Kern et. al believe that more research must be conducted into the long-term effects of increased mercury body burden, and propose that studies that focus on longer experiments from sample populations in multiple locations be pursued.

The Promising Potential of L-Carnitine

For most outside the realm of scientific research, L-Carnitine is an unfamiliar substance. However, L-Carnitine is something we might all be wise to learn more about, as this amino acid plays a critical role in mammalian metabolic function. Essentially, L-Carnitine ensures that fatty acids can enter into a cell’s mitochondria to deliver the oxygen needed for energy production. Aside from creating energy, L-Carnitine is thought to both improve and preserve our cognitive performance. It’s even been suggested that L-Carnitine can sustain high cognitive function throughout an individual’s lifetime.

It’s for this reason that L-Carnitine has caught the attention of autism researchers Mark Geier and David Geier, whose recent paper, “L-Carnitine Exposure and Mitochondrial Function in Human Neuronal Cells,” published in Neurochemical Research in 2013, expanded upon the premise that L-Carnitine can improve cognitive function. Specifically, the Geiers were interested in determining whether or not introducing acute amounts of L-Carnitine to the mitochondria found in human tissue cells subsequently results in an increase in its function.

Researchers have previously conducted clinical trials in humans that found that when subjects received doses of L-Carnitine, cognitive performance improved. Perhaps most interestingly, a study was conducted using patients with the autism spectrum disorder, and in this study too, cognitive performance improved and symptoms of ASD became less prominent.

However, observational trials aren’t always enough to prove relationships in science, which is why the Geiers sought to evaluate what was happening between L-Carnitine and mitochondria on a mechanistic level to determine for certain if and how L-Carnitine affects the mitochondria.

The Study

The Geiers used in vitro cells (cells in grown in a culture) and a vital cell assay (which determines a cell’s health status), along with specific statistical techniques, to measure mitochondrial function.  The test cells included neuroblastoma cells and astrocytoma cells found in brain tumors.  These cells were grown in lab flasks until the cells merged together, and then were disassociated using Trypsin. From there, cells were exposed to a highly-pure L-Carnitine hydrochloride compound solution. Using a colorimetric XTT cell assay, the neuroblastoma and astrocytoma cells had their mitochondrial function measured over the course of 24 hours.

The Results

So here’s why we should care about L-Carnitine: the Geiers’ mechanistic study did in fact prove that what other researchers had observed about L-Carnitine administration and improved cognition function was correct. When the L-Carnitine hydrochloric solution was applied to neuron cells, mitochondrial function increased. Their work stands as the first-ever mechanistic support of a biological basis for heightened cognitive function following L-Carnitine administration.  However, it should be noted that the Geiers found that only a certain range of L-Carnitine concentration has a statistically significant impact on mitochondrial function; L-Carnitine solutions with too high or too low concentrations don’t seem make any difference in function.

The Geiers’ findings present a number of potential applications to chronic disorders. First and foremost, L-Carnitine may be used to mitigate the effects of ASD, a disorder with many symptoms that seem to stem from dysfunctional mitochondria. Secondly, L-Carnitine has also been shown to be inhibited in those with cirrhosis, chronic renal failure, heart failure, Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetes mellitus. With additional studies, decreasing the severity of each of these chronic disorders with L-Carnitine applications may very well become a viable therapy option.

 

The Dangers of Dental Amalgams: Risks of Illness, Anxiety, and More

We don’t often think of a cavity filling as being dangerous. Sure, receiving these fillings can be unpleasant and uncomfortable, but we generally don’t have any worries about their potential negative side effects. However, recent research conducted by Dr. Mark Geier reveals that these fillings (amalgams) pose a number of health risks. Specifically, the elemental mercury in these amalgams has been shown to lead to depression, anxiety, and fatigue, all of which are commonly associated with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia, among other chronic illnesses.

For years, science has identified mercury as a toxin harmful to humans. This element’s potential for severely damaging the nervous system has led to its ban from a number of household products and almost all childhood vaccines. At the international Minimata Convention on Mercury in 2013, over 140 nations signed a treaty that aims to limit human exposure to mercury. Yet, mercury continues to comprise 50% of the composition of the dental amalgams issued to patients in the United States.

If you think dental amalgams aren’t prevalent enough to be of concern, consider that over 181 million Americans have at least one dental amalgam in their mouth, and that these amalgams are given to children as young as 26 months of age. Today, 45 percent of all dental restorations rely on amalgams that contain elemental mercury. These fillings aren’t just concentrated sources of mercury, either, as they continually release mercury vapors.

Proof that an individual’s dental amalgams lead to increased mercury concentrations in the body is evident from a number of studies. For example, research has shown that those with dental amalgams containing a 50% composition of elemental mercury also had high concentrations of mercury in their tissues, kidneys, brain, and urinary porphyrins. The mercury in a dental amalgam is therefore not confined to the amalgam itself; its vapors do reach other areas of the body, and over time, form concentrations in these locations.

However, because the release of mercury vapors in dental amalgams occurs gradually, individuals are more likely to experience chronic toxicity. This type of exposure makes identifying the effects of toxicity slightly more challenging to study, but Geier does point to a number of case studies that illustrate the types of chronic illnesses that can develop over prolonged exposure to mercury. A study of dental assistants that had occupational interactions with mercury demonstrated higher rates of neurological symptoms, sleep deprivation, psychosomatic symptoms, difficulty concentrating and fatigue.

Low-level exposure to mercury has also been shown to significantly alter an individual’s mood, resulting in a wide range of somewhat extreme behaviors, including outbursts of anger and excessive shyness.  A study that evaluated a group of ex-miners who had prolonged exposure to mercury and a group of controls found that the ex-miners were significantly more likely to be depressive, have low self-esteem, and tend towards introversion. Other studies of dental workers have also demonstrated the negative effects of mercury exposure, even when exposure occurred at levels that were deemed to be safe. These studies revealed that dentists with elevated levels of mercury were more inclined to distress, aggression, confusion, tension and irritation.

A study of suicide victims further revealed that over 60 percent of the victims had more than 12 dental amalgams, and were found to maintain triple the amount of mercury in their bodies than those that had died of other causes.

Geier’s research ultimately reveals an unfortunate reality: the levels of mercury exposure we previously believed to pose no health risks can in fact be harmful, leading to both chronic illness and psychosomatic conditions with dangerous consequences.

 

Should We Still Be Concerned about Thimerosal?

Approximately fifteen years ago, Dr. Mark Geier and his son David conducted research that demonstrated that Thimerosal, a dangerous organomercury compound used as a preservative in vaccines, can increase a child’s risk for developing neurological disorders like autism. Why did those like Geier believe Thimerosal poses a potential threat to children? Research had shown that for months after thimerosal exposure, this compound can alter the quantity of neurons found in the hippocampus and thalamus, parts of the brain that play a crucial role in cognitive development.

In response to these groundbreaking findings and the public awareness that ensued, the CDC decided to eliminate the presence of Thimerosal in many common childhood vaccines. For many, this was enough to subdue fears and more or less wipe the issue from public consciousness. However, for those like Dr. Mark Geier, Thimerosal was still very much an issue of concern, as this preservative was not banned from all childhood vaccines.

shutterstock_154769528

The truth is that Thimerosal is still present in a number of influenza vaccines that are administered to millions of pregnant women and young children each year. The CDC’s continued insistence that Thimerosal is safe in low doses challenged Dr. Geier to prove the validity of this claim. One of his most recent papers published in 2014, “A Case-Control Study Evaluating the Relationship Between Thimerosal-Containing Haemophilus Influenza Type B Vaccine Administration and the Risk for a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Diagnosis in the United States,” evaluated this relationship in children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) who received Thimerosal-containing haemophilus influenza vaccine within the first 15-months of life. Haemophilus, often referred to as Hib, is caused by bacteria and can lead to pneumonia, throat swelling, infections and even death.

To conduct his study, Dr. Geier collected information from a PDD case group and a control group to determine which experienced greater exposure to organic mercury from Thimerosal-containing vaccinations in early childhood. Using statistic modeling methodology, Geier compared the data collected from three different test groups that received varying amounts of Thimerosal at different stages of early childhood (all within 15 months of birth).

Unlike several previous epidemiological studies, Geier’s research did find a significant relationship between organic mercury exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the risk of child being subsequently diagnosed with a PDD. Even when test subjects were divided by gender, the results still clearly indicated that children diagnosed with PDD were more likely to have had higher exposure to Thimerosal through the Hib vaccine. Such strongly suggests that the presence of Thimerosal can indeed negatively impact the neurological development of its recipients.

There’s no denying that vaccinations play an important role in the health and well-being of the public by largely preventing the spread of deadly diseases. However, vaccinations should only protect individuals from harm, not inflict it upon them. When vaccinations present potentially dangerous risks to recipients, it’s time for reevaluation, and Dr. Geier’s latest research has shown us just that.

A Look Back at Dr. Mark Geier’s Revolutionary Breakthrough in Genetic Therapy

The advanced field of genetic engineering has perhaps made more revolutionary and impactful contributions to our understanding of human health and disease than any other in science. One of the field’s earliest and most significant breakthroughs occurred less than fifty years ago thanks to the efforts of three American scientists, whose work truly changed the way we think about treating genetic disorders.

In 1971, Dr. Mark Geier, Dr. Carl Merril and Dr. John Petricciani made a major advancement in the field of genetic engineering after successfully treating a sick cell with a healthy virus.  In an effort to find a more comprehensive cure for genetic diseases like Galactosemia, a genetic disease which prevents the body from metabolizing milk, Dr. Geier and his colleagues set out to test the effectiveness of introducing a healthy virus to a defective cell lacking a needed gene.

The Approach

Drs. Geier, Merril and Petricciani focused on the application of a healthy virus as the key to this type of genetic therapy because viruses are themselves, packages of genetic material. Many in science had long suspected that just as a virus could deteriorate and ultimately kill a cell, so too could it affect a cell positively, making it more healthy by supplying a missing gene. To test their hypothesis, Geier and his colleagues used the virus lamda bacteriophage, a virus known for its low risk of endangering humans. The lamda bacteriophage virus included an enzyme that metabolizes galactose, the enzyme absent/underrepresented in the genetic makeup of children who suffer from Galactosemia.

Dr. Geier collected and grew skin cells from a sufferer of the genetic disease and introduced it to the lamda bacteriophage virus. He and his scientific partners then discovered that the genetic material of the virus had been successfully transferred to the lab tissue cells, and was actively functioning within the cell. They then tested what would happen if glucose was introduced to the cell, and to the delight of the scientific community, observed the cell could now successfully break down the sugar. The presence of the deficient enzyme had increased, and the cell proved to be fully functioning.

The Impact

What did it all mean? Dr. Geier’s findings were significant because they ultimately showed for the first time that bacterial genetic material can function after placement within a human cell. This also reconfirmed the hypothesis that the genetic code is the same wherever found. Dr. Geier’s results also gave many increased hope that viral-mediated genetic therapy would be a viable, safer, and more accessible option for those suffering from genetic diseases. The gravity of his findings was also immediately recognized by other leading scientists of the time as a powerful research tool for comprehending genetic disease at the molecular level.

Viral-Mediated Genetic Therapy Today

Dr. Geier’s work ultimately paved the way for a new approach to genetic engineering that continues to this day. In fact, according to a recent May 2014 article in Nature Reviews Genetics, researchers are currently engineering adeno-associated viruses for clinical gene therapy. Adeno-associated viruses are small viruses with single-stranded DNA that have been proven to introduce genetic material to the 19th chromosome with extremely high accuracy. The adeno-associated virus will most likely treat muscle and eye diseases, as well as deliver genes to the brain through AAV vectors. Many consider the adeno-associated virus to possess significant potential for treating a host of genetic diseases.